316. Movies on the Mount / Short Attention Span / Guitarists Anonymous #2

- Duquesne Heights Community Center, Pittsburgh, us@

- Friday, January 18, 2002, 7 to 12 midnight

- The venue was a former supermarket & my corner of it was entered via ramp.

I alternated between a solo Guitarists Anonymous presentation (see 314) & a screening of 21 movies of mine made between 1977 & January 1st, 2001 that're all under 5:00 long (w/ one slight exception). A partition at the top of the ramp had a poster that announced:

& in this corner,




Guitarists Anonymous

- testifying for the recovery of those weak-willed musicians

who've fallen hopelessly into the bad habit of using such a banal instrument


+ 20 Movies Under 5:00 in Length

(for those of you who have a hard time paying attention to anything other than commercials)

{+ 1 slightly longer}

3:20 - "Computer Interview" - (w/ Steve Estes) - 1977

3:46 - "3 Mile Island" {version 5} - (w/ B.O.M.B.) - 1979

2:27 - "Paper Dolls in Dava's Class" - 1981

2:00 - "A Double Negative As Not A Positive" - (w/ Hannah Aviva) - 1982

2:30 - "Neoist Guide Dog" - (w/ Litvinov) - 1984

1:40 - "Nudist Party" - 1989

4:50 - "Ward of Mouth" - 1989

4:15 - "Barfroom" - (w/ DeeDee Ranged) - 1989

1:30 - "Official Neoast Chair Didaction" - (w/ Richard Brandow) - 1992

2:34 - "National Cancer Institute Documentary" - 1993

2:29 - "Department of Failures" - 1995

4:41 - "The Department of Dishes & the Cooking Show Present:" - 1995

4:40 - "Frothing Catatonic Siamese Twins Volunteers Collective XXVII

d composing Mozart Release Party" - 1996

1:50 - "Background Movies for Home Music: [Perpetual (E)Motion] Home" - 1997

1:41 - "Background Movies for Home Music: Light Motion" [should be Hurry] - 1997

1:50 - "Background Movies for Home Music: [Toasting Emotions in Freudian] Western" - (the above 3 w/ etta cetera) - 1998

0:57 - "N.A.A.M.C.P. P.S.A." - 1998

2:58 - "typewriter poem - tomas schmit - march 63" - (w/ etta cetera) - 1998

3:03 - "Shuffle Mode" - 1999

5:02 - "Space Ballet" (condensed) - 1999

2:25 - "Y, 2, Nay-Ked!" - January 1, 2000


The Guitarists Anonymous presentation involved a short filmstrip of "Withdrawal Aids" - pictures of instruments other than guitars. These were culled largely from issues of the excellent magazine "Experimental Musical Instruments" (alas, no longer published). In the 4 or 5 times I presented this, I gradually got more proficient in syncing the filmstrip changes to the way I played the guitar samples. Of course, I worked the audience by asking if any guitarists were present & contextualizing the presentation as helpful for them.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


317. Guitarists Anonymous #3

- Brew House, Pittsburgh, us@

- Friday, February 1, 2002, 8:30 - 9:00PM

- See entries 314 & 315 for the preceding 2 Guitarists Anonymous presentations. By this point I'd made a 60+ slide presentation which, like the filmstrip used in #2, was titled "Guitarists Anonymous Withdrawal Aids" & consisted of pictures of instruments other than guitar. With a remote for the slides, I advanced them somewhat in sync with dramatic changes in the guitar sample playing. My set was followed by the Ben Opie Trio & then Beam. I'm happy to report that members of Beam seemed to enjoy my thing & that the vocalist (who went by the names "Ikea" (maybe) & Marian Barry ((sp?) after the mayor of Washington DC who was busted for crack use) even went so far as to say something complimentary about what I'd done at the beginning of Beam's set. THANK YOU! I like yinz too! I hope we play together again!

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


318. Guitarists Anonymous #4

- Backward on Forward, Pittsburgh, us@

- Saturday, March 16, 2002, 7:53 - 8:28PM

- See entries 314, 315, & 316 for the preceding 3 Guitarists Anonymous presentations. By now, the 60+ slide presentation which had been used in 316 had 80 slides, & the filmstrip used in 315 had been improved somewhat. I'd also made a vaudeo that combined these 2 w/ footage shot by Kent Bye (as part of making a documentary about me) of 314 + a Rehabilitation Center scene w/ ethnomusicologist & well-rounded musician Eric Myers (see 160, 162, 166, & 176), Alex Van Ness (who assisted w/ 276), & Linda Gielec + an improvisation w/ great multi-instrumentalist Michael Pestel (see 204, 205, 208, 211, 247, 248, 250, 251, 252, & 278) in his instrument-filled apartment. The filmstrip was projected by Mark Gunderson, using various playful projection techniques, to the left; the vaudeo was in the middle; & Gordon Nelson projected the slides approximately every 24 seconds on the right.

I began, as usual, by asking guitarists in the audience to identify themselves & pointed out that I'd have to "torture" the recidivists that I saw present. The projections were then started. The vaudeo & the guitar samples were fed into the sampling mixer. Usually the vaudeo soundtrack was kept down. It was brought up during selected Rehab scenes, selected instrument playing with Michael Pestel, & brief snippets of the duets with Daryl Fleming & Greg Pierce. I played the samples as the main soundtrack to this triple projection & sample looped selections with the mixer including something that included the statement "I didn't fuck that ex-Moonie for nothing" - an actual reference to my life included in the Rehab scene. At 2 points I took the Grossinator (a toy used as a 'torture' instrument in the Rehab scene that pronounces 'gross' statements like "I'm going to make a horrible gross fart!") & played a statement from it into the ears of 2 people who'd identified themselves as guitarists. At the end, the Grossinator was allowed to make the last statement to the hypothetical guitarists who hadn't quit the habit yet.

Following me on the bill were Impercept (a Pittsburgh-based laptop performer) & Scientifically Speaking with Irene Moon (a Lexington-based entymologist lounge & noise performer) who was accompanied by the electronics band SICK HOUR.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


319. Release Gig for "Circuits of Steel" CD

- Public Health Auditorium, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, us@

- Monday, April 22, 2002

- "Circuits of Steel" is a Pittsburgh electronic music double-CD compilation published by Manny Theiner's SSS label & Manny arranged 7 release gigs at 7 venues over 7 days. This was the 3rd of these. The evening opened with Vertonen followed by V.V. (both from Chicago) followed by ARC Libre Trio (from LA) followed by myself followed by the evening's incarnation of the Pittsburgh Free Music Society (who change their name every gig & whose name for this one was something like "Statutory Independent Watchdog Body" - abbreviated henceforth as "Body") which included Michael Johnsen. Michael & I are both represented on the CD. What can I say? The (M)Usic was truly excellent from all participants - & there was a paying audience of about 7 in a room that could hold about 150. Whatever.

I began by projecting the 30 minute version of the "Volunteers Collective" vaudeo that has the 3 half-hours of the 90 minute version superimposed - with the sound intitially kept down. I was wearing my Anarkanian outfit (see entries 305 & 312) & carrying my Suitcase (see entries 199, 205, 208, & 211) with the hidden tape-player in it & a radio-mic transmitting from it. I'd go to a vaudience member & open the suitcase & a tape would play which would trigger shorter versions of the Volunteers Collective samples used in 312 to come out of the PA at the front of the room. After a few minutes of that, I returned to the front, where my controller keyboard + sampler + pitch-to-MIDI convertor + wave-table synthesizer + sampler mixer equipment was & removed the mic from the suitcase & hid it under my Anarkanian hood. Then I danced in sync with when my vocals would trigger the electronics.

After this phase, I started playing the electronics from the keyboard. Shortly before 21 minutes, I turned up the (slightly out-of-sync - but that's a different story) soundtrack to the vaudeo in anticipation of the 1st of 2 explosion scenes. When this scene happened, I played the related loud sample & Body got on stage & started playing. The desired effect was that when the explosion ceased, a minute or so later, Body's playing would finally be audible & would sound very rich & renewing in contrast - & I think it worked wonderfully. The personnel were: Greg Pierce, Michael Johnsen, Steve Boyle, Matt Weiner, Hyla Willis, & Ed Bucholtz. I turned the soundtrack down again & started playing with more emphasis on using the wave-table synthesizer sounds. For the 2nd explosion I turned the sound up again. After I ended, Body was introduced & they continued to play.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


320. Multiple Projection Light Show (of Sorts) #06

- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, us@

- Friday, June 7, 2002

- As usual, (see entries 303, 304, 307, 311, & 313) I was asked, as a part of my job as an Andy Warhol Museum projectionist, to show films as background to bands in the theater. Why do I even bother to list such events here? At 1st, I didn't list 307 (& mightn't have listed this one) because my own input to it was a bit too small & unenthusiastic - but then my completism dominated: if I'm to list the more interesting 303, 304, 311, & 320 I should also list the lesser ones like this one.

I didn't even bother to write about this 1 at the time it occurred - probably because I thought it wd be the last 1 that I'd do (since I hadn't been asked to do this for awhile) & since I didn't do anything spectacular for it. 2 of the guys in Cloud Chamber (1 of the 2 bands performing this night) are friends of mine: Ben Opie (see entries 207 & 316) & Daryl Fleming (see entry 314) so I was happy to do something with them. HOWEVER, I decided to present something somewhat 'subdued' (by my standards) since Cloud Chamber is 'subdued'. As such, I used as the central image, a video projection of raw footage of mine of twilight coming thru a venetian blind flickering on a cardboard box. This was periodically flanked by my 16mm films "Subtitles (16mm version)" & "Subtitles (unsplit regular 8 version)".

I don't even remember whether I did anything for Church of Betty (the other band). They may've requested no projections.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


321. Multiple Projection Light Show (of Sorts) #07

- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, us@

- Friday, September 14, 2002

- Yet again, (see entries 303, 304, 307, 311, 313, & 319), as a part of my job as an Andy Warhol Museum projectionist, I showed films as background to bands in the theater. This time, the bands were Beam (from Pittsburgh) & Spaceheads (from London?). Since I'd played on the same bill as Beam (entry 316) & had enjoyed them & since I hate just doing the "same old shit" & since the bands hadn't just requested particular Warhol films (yawn), I decided to do something that I'd wanted to do for awhile but had wanted the museum to pay me extra for (but had never bothered to hustle): to bring my broken WJX-12 video mixer & to use my own materials specially designed for such instances.

For Beam, I started with video footage of trees blown about by a storm - projected by 2 projectors - 1 image inside the other. This was augmented by highly masked Warhol Screen Tests reels 14 & 15 to the left & right. The masking resulted in the projections being very small & in their revealing little more than eyes & the areas surrounding them. I later projected Screen Test reel 16 centrally. I changed the video to my own "Wallpaper Video" of the News American building being demolished in BalTimOre. Since there were 2 video projectors being used, there were interesting moments of phasing. I used the broken video mixer to render the larger image negative (& otherwise effected) to be in contrast to the smaller video image (located upper central). I eventually switched to "F.R.E.D. S. L.I.S.B.E.R.G.E.R." - entirely macro footage from a warehouse where I'd lived.

For Spaceheads, I used a tape called "Feedback" which pulsated nicely in sync with their beat. This was augmented by reels 1 & 12 of Warhol's "Chelsea Girls" which feature Nico. These reels were chosen because Spacehead had requested something with Nico because they'd played with her. The Nico footage at times matched with the feedback in such a way so that it appeared as if the feedback was a thought balloon emanating from Nico's head without any thoughts being inside. I also used my own "Concrete Mixing #1 (Technosensualist version)" as projection material &, eventually, reel 1 of Warhol's "Sleep". I was highly active in use of the broken video mixer (which had as an input footage from a camcorder aimed at the stage) so that there was substantial rhythmic sync between what I was doing & both Beam & Spaceheads. This was possibly the most successful & popular band light show projection I've presented.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


322. Multiple Projection Light Show (of Sorts) #08

- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, us@

- Friday, October 4, 2002

- Yet yet yet yet yeti again, (see entries 303, 304, 307, 311, 313, 319, & 320), as the Andy Warhol Museum projectionist, I showed films as background to bands. This time, the bands were The Karl Henricks Trio (from Pittsburgh) & another pop rock trio from Boston. For the 1st trio, I projected reels 13 thru 18 of Warhol's "Screen Tests" (roughly 3 at a time) using 3 16mm projectors. The left & middle projectors had the widest angle lenses that the museum has & the right projector started out with a zoom lens & later switched to a fairly wide angle 50mm lens. I taped large pieces of paper in the projection path on the booth glass & gradually mutated what image was allowed to go thru. At 1st, there was just a raggedy hole with an eye in it slightly to the left, with another such hole with a mouth, & then another hole with an ear & the side of a face. I scissor cut & ripped & folded further holes out & taped the cut-out pieces into new positions. I changed the positions of the projectors slightly too. Shards of faces were shifting & recombining - usually with a minimum of at least 2 faces as raw material.

For the Boston trio, I projected using 6 versions of my movie "Subtitles" so that there were substantially complex permutations. I started with the film version of "Subtitles (16mm version)" using the widest angle lens & filling the whole screen & then I masked the left half. Then I joined it with the film version of "Subtitles (unsplit 8mm version)" projected using the widest angle lens & masking its right half so that the 2 projections combined into yet another version (a "third mind" version perhaps?). Then I video projected into the upper middle of the screen most of "Subtitles (regular 8mm version)" which eventually segued into all of "Subtitles (June/July '92 version)" & into an 11 minute or so excerpt from "Subtitles (16mm analysis-projection video version)" & into all of "Subtitles (most overkill version)". Whenever the films reached their end, I swapped which projectors they were on & then I switched, 1st, from the widest angle lenses to the next available step down (the 50mm lenses) - having the projections side-by-side with an overlap in the screen's middle, &, 2nd, to 25mm lenses - 1st having the projections widely spaced apart & then side-by-side & overlapping the video projection. Given the basic multi-generational & inter-relatedness of the movies, this produced a strong image 'ping-ponging'.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


323. [on Fabio's radio program

- WFMU, 91.1FM, Jersey City, us@

- Thursday, October 17th, 2002, 12:00 noon to 3:00PM

- Your basic uncert & chat session. My 1st return to FMU since I last appeared with Fabio over 7 years previously (see entry #198). Fabio had tickets to give away for the upcoming "Transfert" festival & had to think of a trick question for them to answer to win the tickets. I proposed that he ask the audience "Who painted the Rothko Chapel?". Which he did. I played 4 short sets using my oxygen 8 MIDI controller keyboard, ASR-X Pro sampler, & DX 500 sampler mixer. The 1st set used the "Volunteers Collective Year of Sundays" samples previously used in #s 312 & 318; the 2nd used the "Guitarists Anonymous Withdrawal Aids" samples used in 314-317 (thusly making this the 5th Guitarists Anonymous public session); the 3rd used the "Mechanically Repetitive / ReRecorded Records" samples used in the Hip Criticals portion of #314; & the last used the "61 (of 123) Sequences Sampled" samples not previously used.]

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


324. [Phenomena Audio Arts & Multiples

- SubTonic, New York City, us@

- Thursday/Friday, October 17th/18th, 2002, 1:50AM to 2:15AM

- I made a somewhat spontaneous trip to NYC & arranged this semblance of a gig at the last minute. Thanks to Fabio Roberti for introducing me to Keiko Uenishi who connected me to Toshio Kajiwara who presents this "Phenomena" series in the wine barrel basement of Tonic with collaborator DJ Olive. Since I was added on at the end I wasn't listed on the ad at the door & I had to wait for the end of the planned performers before it was my turn. By then it was about 1:50 in the morning & there were about 6 people left. Using the same equipment as in the previous entry & the same samples as in the last set of the same I succeeded in making 1 loop before the the sampler ceased to respond to any control signals & I had to reboot it for another 7 minutes or so. Thanks to DJ Olive for DJing during this ridiculous lull. Finally I played about a 15 minute set which I think was quite good despite problems with my sustain pedal.]

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


325. In Memory of Jerry Hunt (w/ a nod to Charles Tomlinson Griffes' "The White Peacock") #1

- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, us@

- Saturday, November 9, 2002, 3:02-3:34PM

- The Warhol films that I project in the theater of the Warhol museum are rarely watched for long by anyone. Most people seem to find them very boring. The film I was showing this day was the silent "Blow Job" - a shot of a guy's face while he's supposedly getting his cock sucked by a changing crew of gay artists. His expression doesn't change much, he mainly tilts his head back every once in a while as a presumed indication of excitement. After his presumed orgasm, he lights a cigarette near the end of the film. On this & the following day, an upright piano had been left in the theater near the screen - a leftover from some recent music events. When I started the film, there was no audience so I decided to play a piano "accompaniment" to it for my own amusement. I played in a somewhat 'flowery' 19th century romantic style, using flourishes, various scales, & drama, etc.. An audience member entered & I explained what I was doing & asked him if he minded. He didn't reply & only stayed for a few minutes - as is typical. After 12 minutes or so of this I got bored & stopped playing & returned to the projection booth. A couple of minutes later, 5 people entered & I decided to play for them with no explanation. As I passed by them en route to the piano, I heard the usual expression of boredom. One of the girls was saying something like "whatever!" & they seemed as if they might get up & leave. The theater was dark except for the screen & the exit signs & I sat at the piano & tried to play in as captivatingly romantic a style as I could (being not a great pianist by any means!) - & doing a passable job (I thought). I played for about 17 minutes & ended with a dramatic chordal crescendo just as the character in the movie lit his cigarette. I then left. The audience stayed throughout my playing & others may have come & gone. After I stopped playing, the audience almost immediately got up & left even though the film hadn't ended yet. This was a guerrilla uncert in that I'm sure that it wouldn't've been approved of by museum hierarchy & I, of course, had no intention of asking for 'permission'. On the other hand, I'm pretty sure that my playing was what kept the 5 people there interested.

I decided to retroactively entitle this as I have in honor of the story that composer/performer Jerry Hunt would sometimes play pieces from his experimental classical repertoire, such as music by Stockhausen, when playing piano at a strip club. The story goes that he had to be protected by a chicken-wire cage to prevent projectiles from the audience from hitting him. The nod to Griffes' piece also ties into the combination of the gay sex (of "Blow Job") & what I call "Low Classical Usic" insofar as Griffes was an early 20th century gay composer who was live-in lovers with a cop & whose "The White Peacock" title was, I'm told, some sort of gay cruising reference.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


326. In Memory of Jerry Hunt (w/ a nod to Charles Tomlinson Griffes' "The White Peacock") #2

- Andy Warhol Museum, Pittsburgh, us@

- Sunday, November 10, 2002, 12:30-12:34PM

- See the preceeding entry. There were 2 audience members at the beginning of this. I asked them whether they'd rather witness the film silent or if they'd like me to play the piano. They chose the piano playing. I tried to vary my playing from the day before's by creating patterns more directly related to the film & in other ways. I played a theme of sorts every time the guy getting the "Blow Job" tilted his head back, I played grumbling low notes when his head was in shadow, & trilling high pairs of major seconds when the white separated the 100 foot rolls, etc.. In keeping with typical drama-building technique, I played glissandi as the climax was nearing. As with entry 324, I stopped playing after the post-orgasmic cigarette was lit. The initial 2 people stayed for about 25 minutes. Other people came & went.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


327. Breakthroughs in Sprocket Science

- Jefferson presents.. @ Backward on Forward, Pittsburgh, us@

- Saturday, November 23, 2002, 8:10 - 11:20PM

- This was the most ambitious screening I've attempted so far. Below is a somewhat rewritten version of a promotional letter that I sent to a local newspaper:

"Lamar "Chip" Layfield


Pat Brown

tentatively, a convenience"

This film is highly significant to me not just because it's my 1st one but because right off the bat I made something absolutely perverse in terms of what people usually expect from films. It's a super-8mm GAMBLING GAME, there's audience participation - in fact, without audience participation it doesn't get shown. The 'REAL' content of the film is very peripheral to where one might expect it to be. 'Nuff said.

2nd, I'll screen 8 VERSIONS SIMULTANEOUSLY of my movie entitled "Subtitles" [It turned out to be 7]. "Subtitles" is a project I started in 1980. The most recent version has been made especially for this screening. It's somewhat akin to so-called "language-centered writing" in the sense that it discombobulates symbols & recontextualizes them in so-called "non-transparent" syntax - ie: I originally took super-8 home movie versions of (mostly) cheesy SF movies & reorganized the scenes into categories such as: "paranoia" & "dissolves" - thusly removing them from their original dramatic narrative flow. Things became MUCH MORE COMPLICATED. I like to say that this movie doesn't have a title, it has a subtitle, which is "Subtitles". The implication is that the movie itself has become a translation for another movie that exists as a larger phantom. The various versions to be presented were originally mostly shot in 8mm, super-8, unsplit 8mm, & 16mm. They'll be presented in 16mm & VHS here.

3rd, "back by popular demand" (Gordon requested it & Jim complimented it to me at a party) is my FAKE PORN SUPER-8 PEEP SHOW MOVIE made as Tim Ore in collaboration with Dick Hertz: "Balling Tim Ore is Best". Dick & I worked as "peep show mechanics" at 2 large porn places. Our job was to edit together something like 32 new peep show movies from stock footage every week. We made this one as a disorienting spoof for unwary masturbators & actually snuck it into a peep show where it ran for 2 weeks 24 hours a day. Tim Ore was tha name I used when I lived in BalTimOre since the city was kind enough to make itself a giant sex ad for myself. I'll show the peep show marquees that're left in my collection that Dick & I made too.

4th, "Bob Cobbing". This 16mm monstrosity will be correctly projected on a spandex screen that can be manipulated to make the film even more mind-boggling than it already is. If I do say so myself, this is a technical masterpiece. Step aside you canonized lazy structuralists. I took an early morning educational tv show of the type that must've bored people who then had to go to work but who watched it as a form of college class & CONCEPTUALLY VANDALIZED IT. Every second of this film is manipulated differently. I'm not exaggerating when I say that very, VERY few films have ever been made this laboriously.

5th, "Volunteers Collective". Approximately the same piece was presented at the Public Health building on Pitt's campus to a crowd of about 7 people (see entry 318). Considering how ambitious it is, I hope I get better attendance this time. The ANARKANIAN goes into the audience with the MYSTERY SUITCASE which triggers sounds by remote control as it opens & closes. The anarkanian dances & the sound dances with it. The anarkanian provides a live bit of CONCRETE MIXING to the projected VHS document of CircumSubstantial Playing - site specific improvisations in a swimming pool, at a NUDIST MASK PARTY, with FROTHING CATATONIC SIAMESE TWINS, in a boulder field, in a barnfull of HARRY BERTOIA'S SOUND SCULPTURES. There's a very rich mix going on here - both formally & conceptually.

6th, we come to that most wonderful of all mediums: the filmstrip. Filmstrips were mainly used for educational & industrial purposes without much formal innovation. Those days are behind us. Here we have my collaboration with the ever-wonderful ETTA CETERA: "Death Bed Aerobics" - a dual projection. Ever wonder how to prepare for death? "Death Bed Aerobics" makes it seem like a snap.

&, finally, my most recently completed movie (except for the specially made version of "Subtitles"): "Cuntralia". When I made it I hesitated to ever screen it in Pittsburgh. That's how personal & embarrassing it is (actually, I've made more embarrassing things but we won't discuss those now, eh?). But, no, I can't resist. This is my tale of SEXUAL OBSESSION WHICH I TRULY BELIEVED ALMOST KILLED ME. Yes, the 1st day I started editing this began a downward spiral that eventually lead to the ER. See it now, because, as with the rest of this program, you'll probably never get a 2nd chance.

For the majority of the night I wore my Tim Ore outfit - except during the "Volunteers Collective" portion. For that section I used a new set of samples culled from 61 sequenced pieces that I'd made between '94 & '97. That connected the suitcase sounds more directly to the samples. One of the most remarkable things about this evening for me is that I had to borrow about at least $30,000 worth of equipment to do it from at least 3 or 4 institutions & both managed to do so & managed to have nothing go wrong! Fortunately, my wish for a larger audience came true & the place was full w/ about 50 people.

- recollections from tENTATIVELY, a cONVENIENCE


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